古时,茶叶是用来救命的 In ancient times, tea was used to save lives

古时,茶叶是用来救命的

在中国,上至帝王将相、文人墨客,下至贩夫走卒、平民百姓,无不以喝茶为幸事。人们常说的“开门七件事,柴米油盐酱醋茶”,也可窥见茶深入各阶层民众的生活。

谈及茶的起源,人们往往会引用“神农尝百草,一日遇七十二毒,得荼(茶)而解”的传说,神农为了给人治病,经常到深山野岭采集草药,他不仅要走很多路,而且还要对采集的草药亲口尝试,体会、鉴别草药的功能。有一天,他采药中尝到了一种有毒的草,顿感口干舌麻、头晕目眩,于是,赶紧找棵树靠着坐下,闭目休息。这时,一阵风吹来几片带着清香的叶子,神农随手捡了两片放在嘴里咀嚼,没想品出一股清香,感到舌底生津、精神振奋,刚才的不适一扫而空。仔细观察后,他发现这种树叶的叶形、叶脉与一般的树木不同,便采集了一些带回去细细研究,后来将它定名为“茶”。这一传说暗示了茶在最初发现时就具有药用功能。

我国古籍中,最早记载药茶方剂的是三国时期张揖所著的《广雅》,称:“荆巴间采茶作饼成以米膏出之。若饮,先炙令赤……其饮醒酒,令人不眠。” 到唐宋时,药茶也已发展为单方、复方并用,且复方之用多于单方。服用方法也由原来单一的煮饮法丰富为调服、丸剂、散剂等。明清时期,药茶的应用范围和制作方法不断更新和充实,茶疗处方更是丰富,适用范围几乎遍及内科、外科、妇科、儿科、五官科、皮肤科、骨伤科和养生保健等各个方面,药茶的剂型也进一步发展为散剂、丸剂、冲剂以及以药代茶饮等多种类型,服用方法多样,有饮服、调服、和服、含漱、擦、搽、涂、熏等。此时大量行之有效的茶疗方被广泛应用,如午时茶、枸杞茶、姜茶、八仙茶、珍珠茶等。

对于茶的药效,成书于春秋战国时期的我国第一部药物学专著《神农本草经》就有记录,历代本草学家和医学家都将茶作为防治疾病、养生保健的良药加以应用和论述。《药书》《华佗食论》《茶谱》等都记载了茶的止渴、提神、消食、利尿、治喘、明目益思、消炎解毒、益寿延年等20多项功效。唐代大医药学家陈藏器甚至在《本草拾遗》中称:“诸药为各病之药,茶为万病之药”,几乎神化了茶的药用价值。

而茶作为药用的同时,也作为食用广为发展。三国时期,张揖在其《广雅》中称饮茶为“煮茗”;西晋时,傅咸在《司隶教》中提到茶,称“茶粥”,反映出魏晋时期的人会将茶的鲜叶采来煮食,并加入米、油、盐、姜、葱、椒、红枣、桔皮、薄荷等作料调味。“煮茶如烹调,吃茶如吃菜”。而“温饮”茶叶的习惯也因此延续至今。我国许多民族也有类似习惯,如内蒙古的奶茶、新疆的酥油茶等。白居易的《琵琶行》名句“商人重利轻别离,前月浮梁买茶去”,说明唐朝时茶叶生意已相当普遍。我们所熟悉的不加佐料、直接用开水冲泡的方式,也就是“清饮”,在明代就已经出现,并逐渐受到百姓,特别是文人的喜爱,成为中国主要的饮茶方式之一。

但是,即使作为饮品流传,茶的药用功能也没有被湮灭。中医药中取其药效而发明出来的茶疗方用途非常广泛。随着现代医学的介入,相关研究不断证实茶叶的保健功效,因其三抗(抗肿、抗辐射、抗氧化)、三降(降血脂、降血压、降血糖)的保健作用,更是被西方称为“神奇的东方树叶”,风靡世界。世界卫生组织调查了许多国家的饮料优劣情况,最终得出“茶为中老年人的最佳饮料”这一说法。

In ancient times, tea was used to save lives
In China, from emperors, generals, literati, and literati, to traffickers and pawns, and common people, drinking tea is a blessing. People often say that "seven things to open the door, firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce, vinegar and tea" can also be seen in the lives of people from all walks of life.

When talking about the origin of tea, people often quote the legend that "Shennong tastes a hundred herbs, meets 72 poisons in a day, and gets rid of tea (tea)". In order to treat people's diseases, Shennong often goes to the deep mountains to collect herbs. Not only do you have to travel a lot, but you also have to personally try the collected herbal medicines to experience and identify the functions of herbal medicines. One day, he tasted a kind of poisonous grass in the medicine, and felt his mouth numb and dizzy. So he hurriedly found a tree to sit down and closed his eyes to rest. At this time, a gust of wind blew a few leaves with a fragrant fragrance. Shennong picked up two of them and chewed in his mouth. He didn't want to taste a fragrant fragrance. He felt fluid under his tongue and refreshed. The discomfort just disappeared. After careful observation, he found that the leaf shape and veins of this kind of leaves were different from those of ordinary trees, so he collected some and took them back for detailed study, and later named it "tea". This legend implies that tea has medicinal functions when it was first discovered.

In ancient Chinese books, the earliest record of medicinal tea prescriptions is the "Guang Ya" written by Zhang Yi during the Three Kingdoms period, which states: "Picked tea between Jingba and made cakes made with rice paste. If you drink, first burn it to make red... Drinking sober makes people sleepless.” By the Tang and Song Dynasties, herbal teas had also developed into single prescriptions and compound prescriptions, and compound prescriptions were used more than single prescriptions. The method of administration has also been enriched from the original single method of cooking and drinking into blending, pills, powders, etc. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the application scope and production methods of herbal teas were constantly updated and enriched, and the prescriptions for tea therapy were even more abundant. The scope of application was almost all over internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, pediatrics, ENT, dermatology, orthopedics and health care, etc. On the other hand, the dosage form of medicated tea has also been further developed into powders, pills, granules, and medicines in place of tea. There are various ways to take them, including drinking, mixing, kimono, gargle, rubbing, painting, smearing, smoking, etc. . At this time, a large number of effective tea therapy prescriptions are widely used, such as afternoon tea, wolfberry tea, ginger tea, eight immortal tea, pearl tea and so on.

Regarding the medicinal effects of tea, the first pharmacological monograph "Shen Nong's Materia Medica" written in the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period is recorded. The herbalists and medical scientists of all generations have used tea as a good medicine for preventing and curing diseases and maintaining health. "Book of Medicine", "Hua Tuo Shi Lun", "Tea Book" and so on have recorded more than 20 effects of tea, such as quenching thirst, refreshing, digesting food, diuresis, treating asthma, improving eyesight and thinking, reducing inflammation and detoxification, and prolonging life. Chen Zangqi, a great medical scientist in the Tang Dynasty, even stated in "Materia Medica Supplements" that "all medicines are the medicine for every disease, and tea is the medicine for all diseases", almost deifying the medicinal value of tea.

While tea is used as medicine, it is also widely used as edible. During the Three Kingdoms period, Zhang Yi referred to drinking tea as "cooked tea" in his "Guang Ya"; in the Western Jin Dynasty, Fu Xian mentioned tea in "Si Li Jiao" and called it "tea porridge", reflecting the people of the Wei and Jin dynasties. The fresh leaves of the tea are picked for cooking, and seasoned with rice, oil, salt, ginger, green onions, peppers, red dates, orange peel, and mint. "Boiling tea is like cooking, and eating tea is like eating vegetables." The habit of "warm drinking" of tea has therefore continued to this day. Many ethnic groups in my country have similar habits, such as milk tea in Inner Mongolia and butter tea in Xinjiang. The famous line of Bai Juyi's "Pipa Xing" "businessmen value profit rather than parting, buy tea from Fuliang the previous month", which shows that the tea business has been quite common in the Tang Dynasty. The familiar method of brewing with boiled water without any condiments, that is, "clear drinking", appeared in the Ming Dynasty and gradually became popular among the people, especially the literati, and became one of the main ways of drinking tea in China.

However, even if it is used as a drink, the medicinal function of tea has not been annihilated. The tea therapy prescriptions invented by taking its medicinal effects in Chinese medicine are very versatile. With the intervention of modern medicine, relevant researches continue to confirm the health benefits of tea. Because of the health benefits of its three antibodies (anti-tumor, anti-radiation, and anti-oxidation) and three-lowering (lowering blood fat, lowering blood pressure, and lowering blood sugar), it is even more popular. The west is called "the magical oriental leaves", and it has taken the world by storm. The World Health Organization investigated the pros and cons of beverages in many countries, and finally came up with the statement that "tea is the best beverage for middle-aged and elderly people".

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